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Resources for Further Research

Schrader's historical novels about Sparta are based on extensive research including, but not limited to, the sources listed below.


Ancient Historical Sources:

A number of works by ancient historians are readily available to us today in translation. For anyone with a serious interest in ancient history, these works are a "must."  However, keep in mind that all these works were written during or after the Peloponnesian War, and all by outside observers of Sparta.  Not a single ancient account of Spartan society from the Spartan perspective survives. 

bulletHerodotus, The Histories, mid 5th century BC.
bulletXenophon, Spartan Society, late 5th century BC.
bulletPlutarch, On Sparta, 2nd century AD.
bulletPausanias, Guide to Greece, 2nd century AD.
bulletThucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, late 5th century BC.

All of the above historical sources are available from Penguin Books.


Modern Historical Sources:

Modern understanding of Sparta has been altered and enriched by careful analysis of archaeological evidence and by trends, such as women's studies, that cast new light on this intriguing ancient society. Below are the sources I found most enlightening and helpful in understanding Spartan society.

bulletStibbe, Conrad M., Das Andere Sparta, Philipp v. Zabern Verlag, Mainz am Rhein, 1996.
bulletForrest, W.G., A History of Sparta: 950-192 BC, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1968.
bulletHodkinson and Powell (ed.), Sparta: New Perspectives, The Classical Press of Wales, 2000.
bulletJones, A.H.M., Sparta, Barnes and Noble, New York, 1993.
bulletBaltrusch, Ernst, Sparta: Geschichte, Gesellschaft, Kultur, C.H. Beck Verlag, München, 1998.
bulletChrimes, K.M.T., Ancient Sparta: A Re-Examination of the Evidence, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1949.
bulletKennell, Nigel M., The Gymnasium of Virtue: Education and Culture in Ancient Sparta, Univ. of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill & London, 1995.
bulletMurray, Powyn, Early Greece, William Collins and Sons, London, 1980.
bulletLink, Stephan, Der Kosmos Sparta, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1994.
bulletBlundell, Sue, Women in Ancient Greece, British Museum Press, London, 1995.
bulletDettenhofer, Maria (ed.), Reine Männersache? Frauen in Männerdomänen der antiken Welt, Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag, 1994.
bulletSealey, Raphael, Women and Law in Classical Greece, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill & London, 1990.
bulletHodkinson, Stephen, Property and Wealth in Classical Sparta, Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 2000.
bulletPomeroy, Sarah, Spartan Women, Oxford University Press, 2002.
bulletCartledge, Paul,  Sparta and Lakonia, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 2nd ed. 2002.
bulletPowell, Anton, Athens and Sparta, Routledge, London, 1988.  
bulletKennell, Nigel M., Spartans: A New History, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2010.
bulletKrentz, Peter, The Battle of Marathon, Yale University Press,  London, 2010.
bulletPomeroy, Sarah B., Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves: Women in Antiquity, Schocken Books, New York, 1975.
bulletBradford, Alfred, Leonidas and the Kings of Sparta: Mightiest Warriors, Fairest Kingdom, Praeger, Santa Barbara, 2011.
bulletHughes, Bettany, Helen of Troy: The Story Behind the Most Beautiful Woman in the World, Vintage Books, New York, 2005.
bulletFields, Nic, Thermopylae 480 BC: Last Stand of the 300, Osprey, Oxford, 2007.


Magazine Sources:

bullet"Sparta: Journal of Ancient Spartan and Greek History" is an educational magazine for ancient Greek history, ancient Sparta, and the Peloponnes.  It discusses issues of history, culture, military tactics, armor, and religion.


Historical Fiction

Historians are by profession compelled to keep “strictly to the facts,” but when facts are few, imprecise, contradictory, and all coming from outsiders, then the picture they deliver is incomplete at best and misleading at worst.  Trying to understand Sparta based on the historical record only is like trying to understand Africa based on the colonial records.  Furthermore, historians are often so focused on the fragments of evidence they do have, that they forget they are writing about human beings remarkably similar to ourselves.  This is the reason a novel, based on solid research and a sound understanding of human nature, can often deliver better insight into strange or distant societies than a strict account of known but fragmentary facts.  The following novels are based on solid research and provide a credible interpretatoin of what Spartan society might have been like in the periods described.

Recommended novels:

bullet In Kithairon's Shadow: A Novel of Ancient Greece and the Persian War, Jon Martin, iUniverse, 2003.
bulletShades of Artemis: A Novel of Ancient Greece and the Spartan Brasidas, Jon Martin, Publish America, 2005.
bulletThe Headlong God of War: A Tale of Ancient Greece and the Battle of Marathon, Jon Martin, Publish America, 2007.
bulletGates of Fire, Steven Pressfield, Doubleday, New York, 1998.
bulletTides of War, Steven Pressfield, Doubleday, New York, 2000.
bulletTod in Olympia, Robert Gordian, Rowohlt, Munich, 2000.
bulletThe Walled Orchard, Thomas Holt, Macmillan, London, 1990.
bulletDie Söldner von Kyros, Otto Lendle, Primus Verlag, 1999.
bulletThe Olympian: A Tale of Ancient Hellas, E.S. Kraay (self published), Lexington, KY, 2008.

I have also written six novels based on my own research.  See Novel Index based on my own research.

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